IPTV is a name for a collection of technologies used to stream Television over the Internet. Essentially, it's the protocols RTC/RTCP or RTSP for streaming the video & audio, and SAP/SDP to announce the streams, all operating over UDP multicast.
Currently, there are a few implementations of SAP/SDP and RTP/RTCP that can be used to emulate being on an IPTV system. The most advanced version of this would be VideoLAN, which will take any kind of file it can open and will stream it over RTP/RTCP or RSTP (In version 8.3+), with automatic announcement over SAP/SDP.
SAP is a method of sending "Session Announcements" over UDP Multicast. SAP uses Multicast address 184.108.40.206 port 9875 by default for sending announcements in the global scope.
A SAP announcement looks like this (Taken from the RFC):
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | V=1 |A|R|T|E|C| auth len | msg id hash | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | | : originating source (32 or 128 bits) : : : +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ | optional authentication data | : .... : *-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-* | optional payload type | + +-+- - - - - - - - - -+ | |0| | + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - +-+ | | | : payload : | | +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+ V: Version Number. The version number field MUST be set to 1 (SAPv2 announcements which use only SAPv1 features are backwards compatible, those which use new features can be detected by other means, so the SAP version number doesn't need to change). A: Address type. If the A bit is 0, the originating source field contains a 32-bit IPv4 address. If the A bit is 1, the originating source contains a 128-bit IPv6 address. R: Reserved. SAP announcers MUST set this to 0, SAP listeners MUST ignore the contents of this field. T: Message Type. If the T field is set to 0 this is a session announcement packet, if 1 this is a session deletion packet. E: Encryption Bit. If the encryption bit is set to 1, the payload of the SAP packet is encrypted. If this bit is 0 the packet is not encrypted. See section 7 for details of the encryption process. C: Compressed bit. If the compressed bit is set to 1, the payload is compressed using the zlib compression algorithm . If the payload is to be compressed and encrypted, the compression MUST be performed first. Authentication Length. An 8 bit unsigned quantity giving the number of 32 bit words following the main SAP header that contain authentication data. If it is zero, no authentication header is present. Authentication data containing a digital signature of the packet, with length as specified by the authentication length header field. See section 8 for details of the authentication process. Message Identifier Hash. A 16 bit quantity that, used in combination with the originating source, provides a globally unique identifier indicating the precise version of this announcement. The choice of value for this field is not specified here, except that it MUST be unique for each session announced by a particular SAP announcer and it MUST be changed if the session description is modified (and a session deletion message SHOULD be sent for the old version of the session). Earlier versions of SAP used a value of zero to mean that the hash should be ignored and the payload should always be parsed. This had the unfortunate side-effect that SAP announcers had to study the payload data to determine how many unique sessions were being advertised, making the calculation of the announcement interval more complex that necessary. In order to decouple the session announcement process from the contents of those announcements, SAP announcers SHOULD NOT set the message identifier hash to zero. SAP listeners MAY silently discard messages if the message identifier hash is set to zero. Originating Source. This gives the IP address of the original source of the message. This is an IPv4 address if the A field is set to zero, else it is an IPv6 address. The address is stored in network byte order. SAPv0 permitted the originating source to be zero if the message identifier hash was also zero. This practise is no longer legal, and SAP announcers SHOULD NOT set the originating source to zero. SAP listeners MAY silently discard packets with the originating source set to zero.
The standard announcement type for SAP is SDP.
An SDP announcement looks like this:
v= (protocol version)
o= (owner/creator and session identifier).
s= (session name)
i=* (session information)
u=* (URI of description)
e=* (email address)
p=* (phone number)
c=* (connection information - not required if included in all media)
b=* (bandwidth information)
One or more time descriptions (see below)
z=* (time zone adjustments)
k=* (encryption key)
a=* (zero or more session attribute lines)
Zero or more media descriptions (see below)
t= (time the session is active)
r=* (zero or more repeat times)
m= (media name and transport address)
i=* (media title)
c=* (connection information - optional if included at session-level)
b=* (bandwidth information)
k=* (encryption key)
a=* (zero or more media attribute lines)
v=0 o=mhandley 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 220.127.116.11 s=SDP Seminar i=A Seminar on the session description protocol u=http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/M.Handley/sdp.03.ps email@example.com (Mark Handley) c=IN IP4 18.104.22.168/127 t=2873397496 2873404696 a=recvonly m=audio 49170 RTP/AVP 0 m=video 51372 RTP/AVP 31 m=application 32416 udp wb a=orient:portrait
For more information, please see the RFC