Record multiple channels from one multiplex
This is a feature, referred to commonly as MultiRec and included with MythTV 0.21, which enables more than one channel to be recorded per tuner as long as the channels being recorded are being transmitted on the same DVB digital multiplex. It does not apply to analog tuners, and whether it applies to QAM digital cable depends somewhat on your carrier and your hardware.
- 1 Background
- 2 Sponsorship
- 3 Use cases
- 4 Setup Tuners / Capture Cards
- 5 Countries with multiplexed DVB/ATSC transmissions
- 5.1 Africa
- 5.2 Antarctica
- 5.3 Asia
- 5.4 Oceania
- 5.5 Europe
- 5.6 North America
- 5.7 South America
DVB digital television transmissions are multiplexed Transport Streams containing several data streams (video, audio, epg, eit, ...) identified by PIDs. When you select a TV/Radio program or data service (like EPG, Teletext, IPv4, ...) the necessary PIDs are remuxed into a new data stream which can be handled by your application. In case of a media player one video PID and one or several audio PIDs are muxed into a TS- or PES-container (there can also be timing information like PCR).
The DVB-standard specifies the MPEG2 codec for video and audio. Alternatively AC3 can be used for audio.
Because of the high bandwidth of DVB multiplexes (up to 90 MBit/s) there is usually more than one TV- or radio-program in a multiplex. In contrast to the Windows BDA driver, the LinuxDVB kernel driver can also deliver the complete Transport Stream of a multiplex.
By remuxing the TS into more than one new stream other TV applications like VDR can record several TV programs in a DVB multiplex at the same time using only one tuner for the multiplex.
Multiplex recording also allows overlapping of sequential recordings of the same program. That avoids the annoying problem with the end of a broadcast being in the next recording or the beginning of a broadcast being at the end of a previous recording, as is lately popular with syndicated reruns of programs like Scrubs and ER.
Open Source Partners in Finland collected sponsorships for this development, with developers involved.
This section originally existed to define some common things you might want to use MultiRec to do, and should be rewritten by someone familiar with the code to describe how closely these targets were hit.
- User schedules recording of two programmes on different channels that share a multiplex (e.g., BBC1 and BBC2). Only one tuner should be used to record.
- User has MythTV set up to always start recording five minutes before and after the scheduled time. User schedules recording of two back-to-back programmes on the same channel, or on different channels carried on the same transport. Only one tuner should be used to record both, despite the overlap.
A lot of the complexity in this change comes not from the recording code but from the scheduling. Define some edge cases to provoke discussion.
- User has three recordings defined that will all be transmitted on one multiplex at the same time, each programme given a priority of "5". Another recording at the same time has a priority of "10" on another multiplex. With only one tuner, which programmes get recorded?
- User has two tuners, one high priority, one low. Two programs at priority 0 are transmitted on the same transport, while one on a different transport has priority 10. Which gets the high priority tuner, and which the low priority one?
- User has two tuners, one high priority DVB tuner, one low priority analog tuner. Two programs at priority 0 are transmitted on the same transport, while one on a different transport has priority 10. Do we give the high priority DVB tuner to the two low priority shows and put up with analog reception for the high priority show, or do we use the DVB tuner for the high priority show, and miss recording one of the lower priority shows?
- User has two tuners, one low priority DVB tuner, one high priority analog tuner. One programs at priority 0 is on simultaneously with two priority 10 programs transmitted on the same transport. Do we give the low priority DVB tuner to the two high priority shows, or put one on the high priority analog tuner and miss the lower priority show? This may be a bit artificial, since a DVB tuner will usually have higher priority than an analog one.
- All these same issues arise for back-to-back recordings on the same transport that are made to overlap due to start early/end late.
Setup Tuners / Capture Cards
Tuner priorities aside, when selecting a tuner for a recording, the backend will choose the first tuner defined sequentially by the MythTV setup program. As such, it is often preferred to delete all capture cards and recreate them from scratch, than to delete cards individually.
For proper setup with multi-channel-recording, or multirec, tuners should be configured in order, and the number of simultaneous recordings set all at once. This is set with the number of recordings setting in the advanced options in card configuration. Default is two, and maximum is five. When the recorder selects a tuner, it will cycle through sequentially until it finds a virtual tuner capable of receiving that channel. Proper configuration in this manner means it will properly use an in use tuner on the multiplex, before falling back to an unused tuner.
The consequence of this is that live TV can use any channel, and thus will pick the first available virtual tuner, even if locked to a multiplex. The only way to leave this multiplex is to manually switch to a different card or different source. The alternative is to go back through after adding tuners, and add one more virtual tuner for each physical one. Then set the frontend to avoid conflicts in playback settings. This will have the frontend select inputs from the back of the list, so if no recordings are currently active, each live tv session will get its own physical tuner. Be aware of the implications to scheduling conflicts this may cause.
Countries with multiplexed DVB/ATSC transmissions
The freeview service transmits via the Optus D1 satellite and via UHF.
DTH Satellite Service
At present New Zealand has two Freeview (FTA) DVB-S transponders on Optus D1. Sky (pay tv provider) also broadcasts TV One and TV 2 unencrypted on one of their transponders. The DVB-S Transponders have enough room for upto 9 TV Channels each.
|DVB-S 12483H||DVB-S 12456H|
|TVNZ 6||Parliament TV|
|TVNZ Sport Extra||Reserved|
|Reserved||Radio NZ National|
|Reserved||Radio NZ Concert|
DTT Terrestrial Service
From April 2008 we a terrestrial DVB-T based service will start with 3 H.264 multiplexes with a mix of HD and SD content.
|TVNZ Mux||MediaWorks Mux||Kordia Mux|
|TV One HD||TV3 HD||Maori TV|
|TV 2 HD||C4||Parliament TV|
|TVNZ 6||Central TV|
|TVNZ Sport Extra|
|Radio NZ National|
|Radio NZ Concert|
- ABC Multiplex (ABC, ABC2/ABC4, ABC3 and ABC News 24, radio)
- SBS Multiplex (SBS, SBS2, SBSHD, radio)
- Seven Multiplex (Seven (or Prime), 7Two, 7Maaaaaate)
- Ten Multiplex (Ten (or Southern Cross), Eleven, OneHD)
- Nine Multiplex (Nine (or Win), GO!, Gem)
Analogue TV has been shut down in regional Victoria since May 2011.
- Astra 19.2° and EutelSat 13.0° DVB-S (up to 20 radio or 8 TV programs per transponder/multiplex)
9 Multiplexes (on In.Di wich is DVB-C- www.indi.be - Antwerp Region). Channels sorted: (TV) + (Radio)
- Multiplex A (Canvas/Ketnet, 2Be, VijfTV, info INDI SD, Jim MTV/Nick) + (Radio BemBem)
- Multiplex B (Life!TV, S.Televisie, Actua TV, BBC One, BBC Two, BBC Prime) + (BBC Radio 1, 2, 3, World)
- Multiplex C (TF1, France2, France3, France5) + (FR Musique, Culture, Inter)
- Multiplex D (ARD, ZDF, WDR, ProSieben) + (1Live, WDR2, WDR3, WDR4, WDR5)
- Multiplex E (Nederland1, Nederland2, Nederland3) + (Ned Radio 2, Ned Radio 4)
- Multiplex F (TMF Party)
- Multiplex G (La Une, La Deux, RTL-TVI)
- Multiplex H (VTM, VT4, één, VTM HD) + (Q Music)
- Multiplex I (Cartoon net, TCM, EXQI, Vitaya)
all tested with concurrent recording. Extra info: www.bramkortleven.be
4 Multiplexes (on terrestrial, updated to 15.12.2008).
- Multiplex 1 (CT1, CT2, CT24, CT4 Sport) + (7 radios of Cesky Rozhlas)
- Multiplex 2 (Nova, Nova Cinema, Prima) planned: (Prima klub, TV Barrandov)
- Multiplex 3 (Z1, Ocko, Public TV, Noe) + (radio Proglas)
- Multiplex 4 (CT1 HD, Nova HD)
1 Multiplex, - more will come.
Current multiplex has: DR1, DR2, Tegnsprog and TV2. As of February not all of the country are covered. Se http://www.digi-tv.dk
- All TV stations on DVB-C/-T (up to 6 TV channels per multiplex)
4 Multiplexes (on terrestrial). Muxes A and B cover 99,9 % of country. Mux C covers 78 % - 85,4 %. Mux E is reserved for pay-TV is also operational but not covering whole country.
Multiple multiplexes on cable, depending on providing company.
TTV is Finland's 2nd biggest cable tv provider with 12 multiplexes. 6-10 channels per multiplex and most of the users use only 2 of them -> More than 10 free channels. Even getting 2 channels with one tuners would be HUGE improvement.
Analog TV has been switched off since 31th of August 2007 in Finland...
- All TV stations on DVB-C/-T (4 TV programs per VHF/UHF multiplex)
- For DVB-T see senderliste.pdf
The UK is made up of 6 multiplexes. As you can see below, with only 6 tuners you could have quite an incredible MythTV recording platform.
|Mux 1||Mux 2||Mux A||Mux B||Mux C||Mux D|
|BBC ONE||ITV1 or (STV or UTV)||Nuts TV||301||E4+1||Film4|
|BBC TWO||ITV2||bid tv||302 / Community||Sky News||Ideal World|
|BBC THREE / CBBC||ITV3||Five||305||Sky Sports News||ITV2+1|
|BBC NEWS 24||CITV||Five Life||BBC FOUR / CBeebies||Sky Three||The HITS|
|Channel 4||Five US||BBC News Multiscreen||Dave / smileTV||TMF|
|E4||price-drop tv||BBC Parliment||UKTV History / Virgin1|
|Quiz Call||Teachers' TV|
In addition, there are a large number of radio stations.
The full list can be found here: 
As the UK is currently in transition to all DVB-T (completed in 2012) an up to date status of Mux's and Channels can be found here: .
The 'interesting' FreeSat TV channels that can be received with a DVB-S card (ie no Sky subscription required) and are thus available for multiplex recording:
Note especially the BBC HD and ITV HD
|tp 41||ITV 2+1||ITV 1|
|tp 44||ITV 1||ITV 2||CITV||ITV 4||Men & Motors|
|tp 45||BBC One||BBC Two||BBC News24||BBC Four||CBBC||CBeebies||BBC Three|
|tp 47||BBC One||BBC Two||BBC Radio|
|tp 50||BBC One||BBC HD|
|tp 54||Channel TV||STV||ITV 3|
|tp 14||Zee Music UK|
|tp 26||Sky News UK||Sky News Ireland|
- TV stations on the Digitenne network are in DVB-T (multiple TV programs per multiplex, all FTA public channels on one multiplex)
# scandvb -c
using '/dev/dvb/adapter0/frontend0' and '/dev/dvb/adapter0/demux0'
0x0000 0x044d: pmt_pid 0x1b62 Digitenne -- Nederland 1 (running)
0x0000 0x044e: pmt_pid 0x1b6c Digitenne -- Nederland 2 (running)
0x0000 0x044f: pmt_pid 0x1b76 Digitenne -- Nederland 3 (running)
0x0000 0x0450: pmt_pid 0x1b80 Digitenne -- TV Rijnmond (running)
0x0000 0x0457: pmt_pid 0x1bc6 Digitenne -- Radio Rijnmond (running)
0x0000 0x0458: pmt_pid 0x1bd0 Digitenne -- Radio 1 (running)
0x0000 0x0459: pmt_pid 0x1bda Digitenne -- Radio 2 (running)
0x0000 0x045a: pmt_pid 0x1be4 Digitenne -- 3FM (running)
0x0000 0x045b: pmt_pid 0x1bee Digitenne -- Radio 4 (running)
0x0000 0x045c: pmt_pid 0x1bf8 Digitenne -- Radio 5 (running)
0x0000 0x045d: pmt_pid 0x1c02 Digitenne -- Radio 6 (running)
0x0000 0x045e: pmt_pid 0x1c0c Digitenne -- Concertzender Classic (running)
0x0000 0x045f: pmt_pid 0x1c16 Digitenne -- FunX (running)
dumping lists (13 services)
Nederland 1 (0x044d) 01: PCR == V V 0x1b63 A 0x1b64 TT 0x1b65
Nederland 2 (0x044e) 01: PCR == V V 0x1b6d A 0x1b6e TT 0x1b6f
Nederland 3 (0x044f) 01: PCR == V V 0x1b77 A 0x1b78 TT 0x1b79
TV Rijnmond (0x0450) 01: PCR == V V 0x1b81 A 0x1b82 TT 0x1b83
Radio Rijnmond (0x0457) 02: PCR == A A 0x1bc8
Radio 1 (0x0458) 02: PCR == A A 0x1bd2
Radio 2 (0x0459) 02: PCR == A A 0x1bdc
3FM (0x045a) 02: PCR == A A 0x1be6
Radio 4 (0x045b) 02: PCR == A A 0x1bf0
Radio 5 (0x045c) 02: PCR == A A 0x1bfa
Radio 6 (0x045d) 02: PCR == A A 0x1c04
Concertzender Classic (0x045e) 02: PCR == A A 0x1c0e
FunX (0x045f) 02: PCR == A A 0x1c18
All of Dutch national public TV and radio in one multiplex!
See http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digitenne for details and information (in Dutch)
DVB-C from GET in Oslo (needs to be verified):
TV5 241000000 Euronews 241000000 DR 1 241000000 Voice TV 241000000 TV2 Nyhetskan 241000000 Cartoon Network 241000000 Get Infokanal 241000000 NRK1 Tegnsprak 241000000 NRK1 272000000 NRK2 272000000 TV2 272000000 TVNORGE 272000000 TV3 272000000 NRK Stortinget 280000000 NRK Super 280000000 NRK Gull 280000000 Svensk TV2 280000000 Viasat 4 280000000 SportN 280000000 TV2 Zebra 280000000 FEM 280000000 NRK P2 290000000 NRK Petre 290000000 NRK Alltid klas 290000000 Radio Norge 290000000 P4 290000000 Classical Calm 290000000 Rock Anthems 290000000 Dinner Party 290000000 Bass & Beats 290000000 Soul Classics 290000000 Strictly 60s 290000000 Jazz Classics 290000000 Under a Groove 290000000 Cocktail Lounge 290000000 Just Chillout 290000000 Got The Blues 290000000 Classical Grea 290000000 Cool Jazz 290000000 All Day Party 290000000 Hits (Germany) 290000000 Hits (Spain) 290000000 Hits (France) 290000000 Hits (Nordic) 290000000 Hits (Italy) 290000000 National Geogrc 290000000 Travel 290000000 Viasat Nat&Crim 290000000 Jetix 306000000 TCM 306000000 CNBC 306000000 God TV 306000000 TV Romerike 24 306000000 BBC Prime 306000000 Scand Sat Radio 314000000 Zone Club 314000000 Extreme Sports 314000000 Animal Planet 314000000 Viasat History 314000000 France 24 Eng 314000000 VH1 346000000 NRK Sami Radio 354000000 NRK Folkemusikk 354000000 Disc Science 354000000 Discovery World 354000000 Disc Travel&Liv 354000000 Nat Geo Wild 354000000 Playhouse Disn 354000000 BBC Food 362000000 Eurosport 2 362000000 Toon Disney 362000000 Zone Reality 362000000 Silver 362000000 Showtime 362000000 Viasat Explorer 362000000 Al Jazeera Int 370000000 TV Follo 370000000 Svensk TV4 370000000 Star! 370000000 Bloomberg 370000000 Visjon Norge 378000000 Nickelodeon 378000000 Hallmark 378000000 Sky News 386000000 Motors TV 386000000
|Mux R1||France 2||France 3||France 4||France 5||ARTE||La Chaîne Parlementaire|
|Mux R2||Direct 8||Gulli||Europe 2 TV||i>TELE||BFM TV||TMC|
|Mux R3||Canal +||Canal J||Planète||Canal + Sport||Canal + Cinéma|
|Mux R4||M6||W9||NT1||Paris Première||TF6||AB1|
|Mux R6||TF1||NRJ 12||TPS Star||Eurosport||LCI|
DVB-T and DVB-C.
There are 6 public DVB-T multiplexes. 1 - 5 covers 98% of the population, Multiplex 6 covers Stockholm at the moment. This is about 30 channels, both encrypted and unencrypted. There are also ongoing work to ensure that the Swedish population in Finland will continue to receive digital transmissions after the analog transmissions have stopped. Channels are transmitted in mpeg2 but as new channels start to broadcast mpeg4 will be used for those (2008). In 5 - 15 years, all channels should broadcast in mpeg4. Both SDTV and HDTV.
Read more at Teracom.
Some of the DVB-T channels:
|Mux 1||Mux 2||Mux 3||Mux 4||Mux 5||Mux 6|
|SVT2||TV4 Fakta||TV8||VH1||TCM||TV Finland|
|Barnkanalen||TV4 Film||Kanal 5||MTV Nordic||SILVER||SVT HD (mpeg4)|
|SVT1||TV6||Canal 7||Kanal 9||BBC World|
|ABC||TV4 Stockholm||Canal+ Hits||Eurosport||BBC Prime|
|SVT Extra||TV4 Plus||Disney Channel||The Voice||Discovery T&L|
|Kunskapskanalen||TV400||TV3||Animal Planet||Axess 25|
|SVT2 Tal txt||Canal+ Sport1||Discovery||TV4 Sport|
|SVT1 Tal txt||ztv.se|
This is the channels that one of the big transmitters in Stockholm/Nacka broadcast.
1 Multiplex ( HTV 1, HTV 2, Nova TV & RTLTelevizija)
- All TV stations on DVB-T (Maximum of 4 TV programs per VHF/UHF multiplex. Radio stations do not count for the maximum).
1 multiplex with all channels (different channels per language region (see: http://broadcast.ch/data_program_dvbt.aspx)):
- In German & Rhaeto-Romanic speaking part : SF1, SF2, SFINFO, TSR1, TSI1
- In French speaking part : TSR1, TSR2, SF1, TSI1
- In Italian speaking part : TSI1, TSI2, TSR1, SF1
At the country-border you might be able to receive neighbouring countries' DVB-T signals (In Basel with a (boosted) rooftop antenna you can additionally pick up: ARD, ZDF, 3SAT, EinsPlus, ARTE, ZDF-Infokanal, HR, Phoenix, SWR, WDR, KIKA, BR (all together on 3 multiplexes (4 channels each).
No official DVB-T broadcasts, but there is a trial signal which is made up of 4 MUXes and is available to approx. 30% of the population in the East and North-East of the country. MUX 1 is FTA, while MUX2,3 and 4 are scrambled. Permanent services are due to start in 2008
|Mux 1||RTE 1||RTE 2||TV 3||TG 4|
Digital cable transmissions are multiplexed. The standard encoding appears to be QAM-256 for unencrypted channels. Usually there are also lots of audio only channels multiplexed into the stream, so each frequency can have a number of streams. Maximum for one frequency with Rogers cable in the Toronto area appears to be 14 streams on one frequency...a mixture of unencrypted video+audio, audio and encrypted HD.
Rogers has a total of 424 streams!
An example dvbscan output:
Unique name:frequency:modulation: video id: audio id: serviceid (pid)
#dumping lists (424 services) [076e]:513000000:QAM_256:26:27:1902 :513000000:QAM_256:29:30:1907 :513000000:QAM_256:18:19:1908 :513000000:QAM_256:32:33:1910 :513000000:QAM_256:37:40:1909 :513000000:QAM_256:51:52:1912 :513000000:QAM_256:53:56:1913 [07b3]:519000000:QAM_256:21:24:1971 [07b5]:519000000:QAM_256:41:42:1973 [07b6]:519000000:QAM_256:43:44:1974 [07b7]:519000000:QAM_256:46:47:1975 [07b2]:519000000:QAM_256:49:50:1970